- In Vitro Screening of Three Commercial Cannabis-Based Products on ATP-Binding Cassette and Solute-Carrier Transporter Function
Cannabis products are being used therapeutically more than ever. Until now, little has been known about possible interactions between prescription drugs and cannabis. This study delves into possible interactions to better inform physicians and patients about concurrent medication use to promote safe and effective use of medical cannabis products. Read the full study.
- Effect of cannabidiol on the long-term toxicity and lifespan in the preclinical model C. elegans
Effects of CBD on lifespan and activity levels were tested in the C. elegans model – a small worm that shares functional genomic counterparts with humans, which make them a great model for studying the effects of cannabinoids on aging and disease. In this study, CBD did not demonstrate any degree of acute or life-long toxicity. Indeed, low and moderate levels of CBD extended mean lifespan up to 18% and increased late-stage life activity by up to 206% compared to controls. These results can inform evidence-based regulation surrounding CBD safety, and point to the need to study how CBD can promote healthy aging and longevity. Read the full study.
- Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs
The question of whether CBD is safe and effective for our canine companions has been longstanding. This study determined the safety profile of four different doses of CBD isolate (1, 2, 4, or 12 mg/kg/day orally), administered once daily for 28 days in dogs. Results indicate that CBD was absorbed and metabolized by the dogs, and that it was well tolerated at low and moderate doses, with only mild side effects in the highest dose group (equivalent to 350 mg daily for a 65 lb Labrador Retriever). Veterinarians and pet owners can have confidence that low to moderate doses of CBD are generally considered safe for dogs. Read the full study.
- Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamics of Spectrum Yellow Oil in Healthy Participants
Medical cannabis patients and physicians are at a loss for answers on how much medical cannabis is “safe” or “enough.” This human safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic study answers the question for Spectrum Yellow oil – a CBD-dominant oral medical cannabis product. After one week of dosing with Spectrum Yellow oil, there were no serious adverse events, and peak plasma concentrations for CBD appeared, on average, 4-5 hours post-dosing. Physicians, patients, and caregivers can have confidence that Spectrum Yellow oil is safe, and physicians can use this information to support patient care through evidence-based dosing regimens and dosing intervals. Read the full study.
- Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamics of Spectrum Red Softgels in Healthy Participants
Medical cannabis patients and physicians are at a loss for answers on how much medical cannabis is “safe” or “enough.” This human safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic study answers the question for Spectrum Red softgels, a THC-dominant oral medical cannabis product. After one week of dosing with Spectrum Red softgels, there were no serious adverse events, and peak plasma concentrations for THC appeared, on average, 2-4 hours post-dosing. Physicians, patients, and caregivers can have confidence that Spectrum Red softgels are safe, and physicians can use this information to support patient care through evidence-based dosing regimens and dosing intervals. Read the full study.
- Pharmacokinetics of cannabichromene in a medical cannabis product also containing cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: a pilot study
Cannabis contains over 120 cannabinoids, most having unique pharmacological properties. However, the effects of cannabinoids other than THC and CBD have largely not been examined in humans. This study examined, for the first time, the pharmacokinetic properties of the understudied cannabinoid, cannabichromene (CBC), in humans. After one week of dosing up to 26 mg/daily of CBC, there were no serious adverse events, and peak plasma concentrations for CBC appeared, on average, 1.6-4.3 hours post-dosing. To our knowledge, these are the first data to show how much CBC is absorbed in humans. This information can be used to support dosing in future studies on the effects of CBC in humans. Read the full study.
- Authorization Patterns, Safety, and Effectiveness of Medical Cannabis in Quebec
This is a large observational study of 585 adult patients who were authorized a medical cannabis product from Spectrum Therapeutics™ and followed every 3 months for 12 months. Medical cannabis use was found to be effective at improving measures of pain, tiredness, drowsiness, anxiety, and well-being. Different ratios of cannabinoids were more (or less) effective depending on the application. For example, THC-dominant strains were less effective for anxiety than CBD-dominant strains. No serious adverse events were reported, indicating the general safety of medical cannabis use. Read the full study.
- Cannabinoid Profiles in Medical Cannabis Users: Effects of Age, Gender, Symptoms and Duration of Use
Studying patients using commercial cannabis products provides an important opportunity to understand the real-world implications of cannabis use. This study followed 629 cannabis users and found that THC-dominant products were more frequently consumed for symptoms of pain and sleep, while CBD-dominant products were more frequently consumed for anxiety and depression. This study provides real-world insights into how adults use and respond to cannabis products. Read the full study.
- A crowdsourcing survey study on the subjective effects of delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol relative to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol
Historically, individuals have used cannabis that principally contains Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). However, products containing Δ8-THC, a chemical isomer of Δ9-THC, are appearing in the U.S. but fall into an unclear regulatory space. Little information exists on reasons for use and effects among consumers of Δ8-THC. This study asked Δ8-THC users about the products they have used and the effects they have experienced. Compared to Δ9-THC, self-reported ratings for “Drug effect,” “Bad effect,” “Sick,” “Anxiety,” “Paranoia,” “Irritability,” “Restlessness,” “Memory Problems,” and “Trouble Performing Routine Tasks” were lower for Δ8-THC. Participants reported using Δ8-THC because it is perceived as legal, a substitute or similar to Δ9-THC, and/or has less intense effects than Δ9-THC. This study helps illuminate the beliefs and effects associated with use of Δ8-THC, a substance that many individuals believe to be legal in the U.S. Read the full study.
- Practical Considerations for Testing the Effects of Cannabidiol on Human Anxiety
Empirical evidence continues to accumulate suggesting cannabidiol (CBD) may have potential to reduce anxiety. Yet, research in the area is insufficient to support strong inferences. Understanding of contemporary CBD and anxiety research methods is critical to safely and convincingly test predictions regarding potential anxiety-reducing effects of CBD. The current paper outlines major design, methods, and safety considerations pertinent both to CBD administration and measuring effects on anxiety outcomes in order to facilitate needed research in this domain. This article highlights not only important aspects of research on CBD and anxiety, but important details for consumers of CBD, such as timing of CBD dosing to achieve desired effects on anxiety. Read the full paper.